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birkenau, ghetto, hans vanderwerff, sion soeters, aktion reinhard, terezin, himmler, david irving, holocaust denial, holocaust lest we forget, jews, synagogue,
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Holocaust - Timeline 1943
Star of David and a public sign "Jews not allowed"
First resistance robbery of a registrars office.
Security service against sabotage is established.
Eisenhower appointed Commander of Allied Troops in North Africa.
Start of the Casablanca Conference.
First heavy air raid over Berlin.
The first Jews arrive in camp Vught after having been in camp Amersfoort.
HRH Princess Margriet born in Ottawa.
Patients of the Jewish Mental Hospital in Apeldoorn deported to Auschwitz.
End of the Casablanca Conference.
"Stahl- und Eisen Aktion", third raid on Dutch factories takes place.
Wilhelmshafen is heavily bombed by US planes in daylight raids. Start of a heavy air campagne against the German war industries and German cities.
Bureau Militair Gezag, Bureau of the Militairy Authority is established.
Decree by Seyss Inquart, the N.S.B. is involved in the implementation of nazi directives and rules.
||Jews ordered to direct mail and correspondence through the Jewish Council|
Dutch police is re-organized.
The "Landwacht", a nazi police organisation is established
Albrecht, leader of the resistance group Albrecht landed near Hooghalen.
Students have to sign a declaration of loyalty to be able to continue their study.
Bank notes are, as of 17-04-1943, declared worthless.
Shops and factories not related with food or war production have to close down.
Working hours are extended to 54 hours a week.
Nearly all Dutch doctors denounce their license to practise their profession.
The registrars office in Amsterdam is set afire. A reward of fl.10,000 offered for tips leading to the arrest of the perpetrators.
Nazis agree to the terms of Dutch doctors. Doctors resume their work.
Allied bombardment of the Ford factories in Rotterdam. Many civilian casualties.
Jews living in the province of Noord Brabant must report to camp Vught.
Arrest of members of the resistance organisation "Nationaal Comité".
Official end of the doctors resistance.
Rotterdam bombed by English planes. Many civilian casualties.
Resistance group who set fire to the registrars office in Amsterdam is exposed.
A decree is released that all Jews must have left the Netherlands by 23-04-1943, with exception of those in mixed marriages.
Bank notes are worthless after this date.
Queen Wilhelmina declares that the hunt for people and the help of the Dutch nazi gangs is criminal and unprecendented in Dutch history.
112 civilians are arrested.
Again a decree that former Dutch military personnel has to be taken to Germany as POW. They must report in Amersfoort at 07-05-1943.
Start of the "April-Mei Strike".
Martial law is declared for the provinces Noord-Holland, Gelderland, Overijssel and Limburg.
"April-Mei Strike" is at its peak.
Martial law is declared for the whole country.
General curfew is declared. After 20.00 hours no one allowed on the streets, with the exception of persons with a permit.
Again resistance fighters are executed, shortly after their verdict came in.
By order of Heinrich Himmler most Jews must be deported by year's end.
Railway sabotage at the lines between Rijssen and Wierden by the resistance to prevent Dutch soldiers to be taken to Germany as POW.
Students who failed to sign the declaration of loyalty to the nazis must report for the "Arbeitseinsatz", forced labour.
All men between the age of 18 - 35 years must report for the "Arbeitseinsatz", with the exception of Germans, civil servants, clergy men and former soldiers.
Allied victory in North Africa.
Dutch bishops publish a letter of protest against the acts of terror by the nazis.
All radiosets have to be handed over to the German authorities.
Protestant churches protest against deportation of labourers and the Arbeitseinsatz
Prime minister Gerbrandy in exile, calls upon soldiers and labourers not to report for the Arbeitseinsatz and declares civil servants are not allowed to cooperate with the nazis to implement these measures.
Dutch churches protest against the sterilisation directives.
Intensive razzia's - raids among the Jews of Amsterdam.
Dr. Posthuma, Musserts representative for agriculture is killed by the resistance
Distribution office raided, all documents seized are handed over to the L.O.
In Tegel, near Berlin 32 resistance fighters of the "Stijkel" group are executed.
All boys in the age of 18 and 19 must report to be send to Germany, with the exception of miners, pupils and students who signed the declaration of loyalty.
Large scale razzia's - raids among the remaining Jews of Amsterdam.
Large scale razzia's - raids among the remaining Jews of Amsterdam.
Dutch doctors protest against the death penalty.
The resistance establishes an illegal distribution office to provide people in hidding, with false papers they need, to escape deportation or capture by the nazis.
Many doctors are arrested because of their protest.
US army lands on the eastern part of New Guinea.
British, American and Canadian troops invade Sicily.
Fieldmarshall von Rundstedt visits the Netherlands.
Amsterdam bombed by the US Airforce.
First Allied air raid over Rome.
20 resistance fighters convicted in the L.D. trail are executed on the Leusderheide.
The members of the resistance group `Zwaantje` are arrested.
17 resistance fighters convicted in the second O.D. trail are executed on the Leusderheide.
Fascist council in Italy is canceled. Mussolini is arrested.
|Arrests of a military resistance group in Meppel.|
Men over 16 not living in the provinces Groningen, Drenthe, Friesland, Overijssel and Gelderland are not allowed to reside in these provinces. This measure is taken to get a grip on the large numbers of people hidding in these provinces.
National meeting of the resistance. They decided to establish a national military branch , L.K.P., to obtain funds and documents to accomodate the many people who went into hidding, by means of force. Most local and regional resistance groups joined the L.O. and L.K.P.
Succesful British air raid on the German rocketcentre, Peenemünde.
Expanding of working hours from 54 to 72 per week.
Coastal area near Hoek van Holland, Scheveningen, IJmuiden and Den Helder are closed for civilians.
R.v.V. (Council for Resistance) spread leaflets to join the resistance.
|British troops land in Calabria, Italy.|
Italy surrenders unconditionally. Gemans in Italy continue to fight the Allied troops.
Mussolini is freed by German paratroopers.
Meeting of the resistance in Hoorn is raided by the Sicherheitsdienst.
Round-up of the last Jews of Amsterdam.
19 civilians executed by the Germans in Amsterdam.
|Allies liberate Napels.|
Italy declares war on Germany.
First German V bomb is tested in Zempin.
Famous Dutch writer A.M. de Jong is murdered in Blaricum, as a matter of revenge by the N.S.B.
7 death penalties on civilians were executed.
|18,000 residents from the Benoordenhoutkwartier in the Hague, have to be evacuated, before 15-12-1943.|
First raid by the resistance on a ammunition depot in Den Bosch.
Cairo Conference, attending are Roosevelt, Churchill and Chiang Kai-Shek.
Goebbels delivers a speech on Germany's revenge and new weapons of mass destruction.
Cairo Conference ends.
Teheran Conference, attending are Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin.
|Teheran Conference ends.|
Minister Gerbrandy delivers a speech about the situation during the liberation of the Netherlands.
A new distribution ID card, Tweede Distributie Stamkaart, was anounced, because of the large number of false cards used by illegals.
Implementation of extraordinary penal law.
Appointment of militairy commanders for the invasion of Western Europe is announced.
Finally, all Jews of mixed marriage are called up for labour camp duty.
The "Jewish Question" in the Netherlands considered solved.