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Holocaust - Timeline 1944


Star of David and a public sign  "Jews not allowed"

1940

1942

1943

1944

1945

1946


January 10-01
10-01
18-01
18-01
22-01
25-01
26-01

Dutch government warrants mony spent by the N.S.F., National Support Fund, which supports families of resistance fighters and victims of the Germans.
Mass arrests in Dokkum by the Germans.
Resistance reacts immediately and liberates all prisoners during transportation.
20 Dokkemer civilians executed as a reprisal for the action of the resistance.
Raid on the town hall of Tilburg. Resistance obtains 105,000 seals for ID cards.
Radio Oranje broadcasts a code of conduct in case of an invasion.

February 08-02
14-02
15-02
16-02
20-02
22-02

New distribution cards and a new seal on the ID cards are issued.
Himmler visits the Netherlands.
The Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Forces established in London.
Beginning of the flooding of strategic area´s.
Nijmegen is bombed.
By decree robbers of distribution offices and registrars offices are executed.

March 04-03
15-03

First US air raid in daylight on Berlin.
B.B.O., Bureau of Special Operations is established in London.

April 01-04
11-04
11-04
15-04
15-04
20-04
24-04

End of the ´Englandspiel`.
Bombing and destruction of the Central Registrars Office in the Royal Art Hall Kleykamp in the Hague.
Speech of Max Blokzijl. all those in hiding are subject to a general pardon.
Extensive airraides and reconnaissance flights to prepare for the invasion.
Arrests of resistance fighters in the "Achterhoek".
City Hollandia on New Guinea in US hands.

May 01-05
11-05
12-05
13-05
16-05
17-05
18-05
18-05

Notorious resistance fighter "Frits de Zwerver" is arrested.
Raid on the "Koepel" prison in Arnhem to free Frits de Zwerver.
Allied forces open the attack in Italy.
Decree by Seyss Inquart about emergency measures.
Legal Agreement between Dutch, US and British governments.
Raid on printers office Hoitsema in Groningen. 133.450 distribution coupons are obtained.
Monte Casino is liberated by the Allies.

June 04-06
06-06
06-06
07-06
08-06
08-06
11-06
13-06
15-06
15-06
15-06
19-06
21-06
23-06
25-06
27-06

Allies march into Rome.
D-Day, Allied invasion of France.
22 resistance fighters executed in Overveen.
24 Dutch civilians executed in Den Bosch.
Queen Wilhelmina sends a telegramm to the resistance in occupied territory in which she calls for the unification of all resistance groups.
Resistance raid on the prison in Arnhem, 56 prisoners set free.
The first 4 V-1 rockets land in the south of England.
Start of V-1 attacks on London.
Belgian King Leopold transferred to Germany.
First air raid on Japan.
Dutch Military Authority is established.
Members of the resistance in Limburg are arrested in a convent in Weert.
Start of the Russian summer offensive.
Allied forces enter Cherbourg.
Germans rob the "Bibliotheca Rosenthaliana".

July 03-07
06-07
06-07
08-07
12-07
14-07
16-07
20-07
20-07
20-07
First meeting of all national resistance organizations.
Von Rundstedt is relieved from his position as Supreme Commander in the West, by Von Kluge.
First L.O. announcements issued.
Preparations for the strategic flooding of the "Noorder IJpolder".
A raid on the prison "Weteringschans" in Amsterdam failed.
Notorious resistance fighter Johannes Post is executed.
Hitler is slightly injured in an attempt to kill him.
Himmler made Supreme Commander of the "Wehrmacht".
Keitel replaced by Guderian.
August 01-08
02-08
04-08
08-08
08-08
08-08
10-08
14-08
14-08
22-08
22-08
23-08
25-08
25-08
28-08

Warsaw uprising.
New warrant from the Dutch government for the N.S.F.
American break through at the river Loire.
24 death sentences carried out on resistance fighters for spreading anti nazi newspapers.
Royal dutch Brigade "Prinses Irene" lands in Normandy.
Railway traffic is limited.
Allies land in southern France near St. Raphaël. Allied forces approach the river Seine.
British and Dutch governments agree on "the Mutual Aid Act".
Colonel Doorman is appointed Commander in Chief of the Dutch Army.
Paris and Marseille are liberated.
Last meeting of the L.K.P. in Amersfoort. "Frank" is appointed "National Sabotage Commandant".
First weapons dropping for the L.K.P.

September 01-09
01-09
01-09
01-09
02-09
02-09
03-09
03-09
03-09
03-09
04-09
04-09
04-09
04-09
04-09
05-09
05-09
05-09
05-09
05-09
05-09
06-09
07-09
08-09
09-09
09-09
09-09
09-09
10-09
10-09
10-09
11-09
12-09
12-09
12-09
12-09
12-09
12-09
12-09
12-09
13-09
13-09
15-09
15-09
17-09
17-09
18-09
19-09
19-09
19-09
20-09
20-09
21-09
23-09
25-09
26-09
26-09
27-09
30-09
30-09
30-09
SEPT
30-09
Allied Tank Corps crosses the river Maas at Sedan.
Installation of the B.N.S. (Supreme Commander of the Dutch Armed Forces)
Discontinuation of the function of inspector of Dutch Troops (in England).
Discontinuation of the M.T.V.
Raid on the prison in Maastricht.
Alied High Command issues an order to organise a strike at the Dutch railways.
Start of large scale sabotage at the railwaysystem in the Netherlands.
His Royal Highness Prince Bernhard appointed B.N.S.
Prince Bernhard addresses Dutch resistance and orders them to be prepared.
Brusselles liberated.
State of emergency declared for the Netherlands.
Allied troops reach the Belgian city of Antwerp.
60 prisoners of concentration camp Vught executed.
Meeting between Chief of Staff of the O.D. and his representatives.
After rumours of a defeat Germans and Dutch traitors flee from the Netherlands.
"Dolle Dinsdag". Dutch are celebrating the retreat of the Germans and the soon to come liberation.
B.S. (Dutch interior armed forces) established.
Allied Tank corps reaches the Belgian city of Gent.
A transport with prisoners leaves concentration camp Vught to Sachsenhausen.
Mail traffic is subject to strikes.
B.N.S. and a small staff leave London to travel to the continent.
All telegraph traffic is prohibited.
The first V-2 hits London.
First weapons dropping on "Mandrill" near Spanbroek in the province Noord-Holland.
Belgian government back in Brussells.
Meeting of the socalled "Delta-Centrum".
Meeting between Montgomery and Eisenhower on an airport near Brussels. They decide to execute operation Marketgarden.
First commanders of operation Marketgarden prepare in Brussels.
Colonel Kruls appointed chief of staff of the Military Authority.
Liberation of the south of the Netherlands starts. Eysden liberated.
First telephone call from the occupied city of Den Haag with the Americans who crossed the border at Eysden.
British 2e Army crosses the border near Eindhoven.
Bernhard and the minister of war issue a code of conduct for citizens in occupied territories.
Decree by the Militair Gezag in regard to the arrest of collaborators.
Dutch resistance is ordered to get ready for battle.
Maastricht lis liberated.
Allied planes bomb V-2 platforms near Den Haag.
Last meeting of all leaders of the L.O. in Amsterdam.
All beaches to the south of Zeebrugge cleared.
Allied paratroopers land near Eindhoven, Nijmegen, Grave and Arnhem.
Dutch government decrees a railway strike.
Colijn dies in German captivity in Ilmenau.
B.N.S. orders "Bep" to form the "Commando Limburg der Stoottroepers".
First issue of the "Publicatieblad van het Militair Gezag".
German planes bomb the liberated city of Eindhoven.
Start destruction of the harbours of Amsterdam and Rotterdam.
Dutch resistance (L.K.P., R.v.V. and OD) incorporated in the B.S.
Dutch "Stoottroepen" established in the liberated south.
Divers from the Zaan area remove explosives from the "Hembridge".
British troops at Arnhem retreat behind the river Rijn.
Retreat of British troops behind the Rijn completed.
Destruction of the harbour of Rotterdam.
Start of the British artillery bombardment of the village of overloon.
German soldiers killed by the resistance between Putten and Nijkerk at the "Olden Aller".
Colonel K.N.I.L. J.J. Barendsen killed by the Germans.
King George VI visits British troops on the continent and stays in the liberated south of the Netherlands.
October  01-10
03-10
03-10
04-10
04-10
06-10
07-10
09-10
09-10
10-10
10-10
10-10
10-10
11-10
11-10
11-10
12-10
13-10
14-10
15-10
15-10
17-10
18-10
18-10
18-10
20-10
22-10
22-10
22-10
23-10
23-10
23-10
23-10
24-10
24-10
24-10
24-10
24-10
24-10
25-10
25-10
26-10
28-10
28-10
28-10
28-10
28-10
29-10
29-10
29-10
31-10
31-10
31-10
31-10
Deportation of the men of Putten.
Dikes at Westkapele bombed by the Germans. The area is flooded.
Oil and petrol storage in Rotterdam destroyed by the Germans.
Massacre at the "Vloeiweide" near Rijsbergen. Germans kill 9 resistance fighters. 
British troops land in Greece and Albania.
Gerbrandy delivers a speech on the railway strike.
Razzia;s in order to arrest men between the age of 17 and 50.
Establishment of the "Landelijk Herstel" (National Recovery).
Delivery of electricity in the province of Noord Holland is stopped.
Razzia's in Rotterdam and the Veluwe area.
Soup kitchen in Den Haag opens.
Directives for the "Binnenlandse Strijdkrachten" issued.
The first company of Stoottroepen advances to the Waal section.
Order by the commander of the Binnenlandse Strijdkrachten issued. No more volunteers for resistance groups are to be recruited.
Heavy fighting in the Zeeland section at the Westerschelde and Zuid-Beveland.
Delivery of gas to Den Haag and surrounding villages is stopped.
The organisation "Stichting 40-45" established.
Athens is liberated.
Gerbrandy addresses the Americans on the topic of the suffering of the Dutch people in a radio speech.
The battle at Overloon ends.
Russian attack on East Prussia.
Names of the resistance groups OD, K.P. en R.v.V. replaced by N.B.S.
First Dutch depot is established at St. Niklaas in Belgium.
Belgrad liberated. Americans land on the Philippines.
Dutch are warned that the S.D. (Sicherheitsdienst) are planning raids to eliminate the resistance in occupied territories. Special infiltrators are trained for this cause.
In the north of Antwerp the Dutch border are reached.
In the Apollolaan in Amsterdam 29 men are murdered by the Germans.
German reinforcements are send to the southwest of the Netherlands.
Production of Dutch coalmines in the liberated province of Limburg is resumed. Transportation is not yet possible.
Resistance raids the prison Haagsche Veer in Rotterdam.
Department B.S. of the B.N.S. is established.
Allies open attack on west Noord-Brabant.
Staff of the 15th German army bombed at Park Merwestein in Dordrecht.
Chief of Staff of the B.N.S. (Dutch National Forces) leaves for London to report to H.M. Queen Wilhelmina.
Germans kill 10 civilians in Haarlem.
Delivery of gas to Amsterdam and surrounding villages is stopped.
Concentration camp Herzogenbusch (kamp Vught) liberated.
Commanders of the OD, K.P. and R.v.V. are incorporated in the Binnenlandse Strijdkrachten.
Regional OD commander appointed B.T.
Camp Vught used to imprison collaborators.
J. van den Bosch, leader of the N.S.F. is killed in concentration camp Westerbork.
Dutch government sends a letter to the governments of the United Nations addressing the issue of German territory after the war.
Largest Dutch factory of railway equipment is destroyed by the Germans.
German retreat behind the rivers Maas and the Hollandsch Diep with exception of the area northwest of 's-Hertogenbosch.
Zuid-Beveland, an island of the province Zeeland liberated by Canadian troops.
Canadian troops advance over the dikes to Walcheren.
November  01-11
01-11
01-11
01-11
02-11
02-11
03-11
04-11
03-11
04-11
05-11
05-11
05-11
05-11
05-11
07-11
07-11
10-11
10-11
11-11
13-11
15-11
15-11
17-11
17-11
Order by the Allied High Command to the Commander of the Binnenlandse Strijdkrachten, to protect the bridges.
Canadian troops advance over the Sloe dam. Other Allied units land near Vlissingen and Westkapelle. 80% of the soldiers are killed in this operation.
Germans blow up the bridge at the Keizersveer near Geertruidenberg.
All radiostations are ordered to send military information to the B.N.S.
Bridges over the Hollandsch Diep are partially destroyed by the Germans.
Two crossings from the marschlands of the Biesbosch succesfully completed between Sliedrecht and Werkendam.
Exchange of telegramms between Commander of the B.S. and the British Allies.
A group of 75 German POW's handed over into Allied custody by the K.P. Drimmelen.
Town hal of Heusden destroyed by the Germans. 134 people who sought refuge were killed.
Dutch Reformed and Roman Catholic church also destroyed by the Germans.
The isle of Walcheren, part of the province Zeeland is liberated.
Roosevelt re-elected as president of the USA.
Raid in Rotterdam. Alle tunnels and bridges are closed in order to obtain workforces to Germany.
Razzia in Rotterdam. 50,000 men are deported. 16 freedomfighters are executed.
Raid in the city of Utrecht.
Resistance robs the Dutch Bank in Almelo and obtain fl. 46,000,000
Raid in Amsterdam.
The Moerdijk bridge near Dordrecht is destroyed. The gap made by earlier attempts is broadened to 170 meters.
December